spanish caribbean colonies
 Based in Castile, with the assignment of the governance of the Indies, it was thus responsible for drafting legislation, proposing the appointments to the King for civil government as well as ecclesiastical appointments, and pronouncing judicial sentences; as maximum authority in the overseas territories, the Council of the Indies took over both the institutions in the Indies as the defense of the interests of the Crown, the Catholic Church, and of indigenous peoples. Expeditions continued into the 1540s and regional capitals founded by the 1550s. Pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and chickens allowed Spaniards to eat a diet with which they were familiar. Bogotá, Colombia: Ediciones El Tiempo, 1981. Relatively few monographs are devoted to the first 250 years of colonial Spanish Caribbean history; while older studies of this period describe Crown policy, imperial rivalries, and the evolution of colonial institutions, recent works emphasize maritime economies and social formations within the region’s major port cities. Dependency Theory in Latin American History, Development of Architecture in New Spain, 1500–1810, The, Development of Painting in Peru, 1520–1820, The, Dutch in South America and the Caribbean, The. In 1821 Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain and concluded the War. Effective Spanish settlement began in 1493, when Columbus brought livestock, seeds, agricultural equipment. The latter, which name is a corruption of Espanola, is today made up of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. The four main colonial powers in the Caribbean were the Spanish, English, Dutch, and French. During the early Age of Discovery, the diocesan clergy in Spain was poorly educated and considered of a low moral standing, and the Catholic Monarchs were reluctant to allow them to spearhead evangelization. The Spanish did establish the settlement of Chile in 1541, founded by Pedro de Valdivia. For all practical purposes, this was slavery. Moya Pons, Frank. breaks new ground in articulating the early Spanish Because most of them are too small to be viable as independent countries. These lands were often quite vast. New Spain also included many islands in the Caribbean Sea and the Spanish lands north of what is now Panama. It is estimated that during the colonial period (1492–1832), a total of 1.86 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era (1850–1950); the estimate is 250,000 in the 16th century, and most during the 18th century as immigration was encouraged by the new Bourbon Dynasty. London Macmillan Caribbean, 1997–2012. A key to this was the cooperation between most indigenous elites with the new ruling structure. La llave de las Indias. The colony of New Spain was formed in 1535, with most of its land in Mexico and its capital in Mexico City. While the British abolished slavery by 1833, Spain abolished slavery in Puerto Rico in 1873. The Audiencias were initially constituted by the crown as a key administrative institution with royal authority and loyalty to the crown as opposed to conquerors and first settlers.  The crown sought to establish and maintain control over its overseas possessions through a complex, hierarchical bureaucracy, which in many ways was decentralized. The Spanish Habsburgs claimed all of the Americas as their exclusive domain (excepting Portuguese Brazil), but they occupied only territories around the equator. The crown separated them into the República de Indios.   This has been argued to be the first large-scale act of genocide in the modern era.  Even by the mid-1510s, the western Caribbean was largely unexplored by Spaniards. , During the early colonial period, the crown authorized friars of Catholic religious orders (Franciscans, Dominicans, and Augustinians) to function as priests during the conversion of indigenous populations. Mounted indigenous warriors were significant foes for Spaniards. The Spanish recognized indigenous elites as nobles and gave them continuing standing in their communities. Virtually all expeditions after the Columbus voyages, which were funded by the crown of Castile, were done at the expense of the leader of the expedition and its participants. IMPACT OF SPANISH COLONIZATION ON THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF TRINIDAD AND WIDER CARIBBEAN Pre- History before the European’s Three (3) major Amerindian indigenous people lived in the Caribbean before the European discovered many of the Caribbean islands. Other countries that held possession of various islands at different times were Portugal, Sweden, and Denmark. Columbus made four voyages to the West Indies as the monarchs granted Columbus vast powers of governance over this unknown part of the world. What can be called the visions of the vanquished, indigenous accounts written in the sixteenth century, are a rare case of history being written by those other than the victors. Don Martín was sent into exile, while other conspirators were executed. The treasury officials were appointed by the king, and were largely independent of the authority of the governor. Spaniards found the bonanza they long sought: great material wealth. Spaniards had some knowledge of the existing indigenous practices of labor and tribute, so that learning in more detail what tribute particular regions delivered to the Aztec empire prompted the creation of Codex Mendoza, a codification for Spanish use. During the Bourbon era, even when the crown systematically appointed peninsular-born Spaniards to royal posts rather than American-born, the cabildos remained in the hands of local elites. The empire stretched across the Caribbean Islands, North America, Central America, and half of South America. Once on the mainland, where there were dense indigenous populations in urban settlements, the Spanish could build a Spanish settlement on the same site, dating its foundation to when that occurred. (Your identity will remain anonymous)Conéctate conmigo! Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Terraciano, Kevin. During the earliest years of Caribbean rum, the Spanish crown forbade its colonies from making any distilled spirits. Five hundred Spaniards did not topple the Aztec Empire alone. Pedro de Mendoza and Domingo Martínez de Irala, who led the original expedition, went inland and founded Asunción, Paraguay, which became the Spaniards' base. Indigenous elites could use the noble titles don and doña, were exempt from the head-tax, and could entail their landholdings into cacicazgos. Whatever the case, slavery existed in the West Indies and many other parts of the New World. Maya society under colonial rule: The collective enterprise of survival. According to Cook, the indigenous Californian population at first contact, in 1769, was about 310,000 and had dropped to 25,000 by 1910. 1, pp. Although the structure of the indigenous cabildo looked similar to that of the Spanish institution, its indigenous functionaries continued to follow indigenous practices.  In 1561, Pedro de Ursúa led an expedition of some 370 Spanish (including women and children) into Amazonia to search for El Dorado. There was surface gold found in early islands, and holders of encomiendas put the indigenous to work panning for it. 4: Spanish Caribbean Colonies. Expand or collapse the "in this article" section, The Spanish Caribbean In The Colonial Period, Spanish Expansion and Early Colonial Society, Maritime Economies and Export Commodities, Urban Society in Nineteenth-Century Cuba and Puerto Rico, Expand or collapse the "related articles" section, Expand or collapse the "forthcoming articles" section, The Dutch in South America and the Caribbean. They were aggressive in making their investment pay, alienating the indigenous populations and Spaniards alike. Queen Isabel put an end to formal slavery, declaring the indigenous to be vassals of the crown, but Spaniards' exploitation continued. Although today Buenos Aires at the mouth of Rio de la Plata is a major metropolis, it held no interest for Spaniards and the 1535-36 settlement failed and was abandoned by 1541. Colombus was leading a Spanish expedition that led the way for much future colonization, especially in the Caribbean region, and both North and South America. One in 1949 stars Frederic March as Columbus. Spanish plight. The Spanish Caribbean: 1821-1898: The loss of Santo Domingo in 1821 is a particular blow to Spanish pride, since the island of Hispaniola was the first of Columbus' discoveries to be colonized. 3d ed.  A similar legal apparatus was set up in Lima.. Cumaná in Venezuela was the first permanent settlement founded by Europeans in the mainland Americas, in 1501 by Franciscan friars, but due to successful attacks by the indigenous people, it had to be refounded several times, until Diego Hernández de Serpa's foundation in 1569. Survivors continued to travel among indigenous groups in the North American south and southwest until 1536. He was driven from his home by the thousands, starved, beaten, raped, and murdered with impunity. By maintaining hierarchical divisions within communities, indigenous noblemen were the direct interface between the indigenous and Spanish spheres and kept their positions so long as they continued to be loyal to the Spanish crown. In the seventeenth and eightee… Early British settlements include Bermuda (1612), Saint Kitts (1623), and Barbados (1627). The Spanish network needed a port city so that inland settlements could be connected by sea to Spain. “House of Welser” in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. The Plan of Iguala was part of the peace treaty to establish a constitutional foundation for an independent Mexico.  It was governed by the president of the Audiencia of Bogotá, and comprised an area corresponding mainly to modern-day Colombia and parts of Venezuela. While the British abolished slavery by 1833, Spain abolished slavery in Puerto Rico in 1873. Practice: Labor, slavery, and caste in the Spanish colonial system. Although the Spanish conquests of the Aztec empire and the Inca empire in the early sixteenth century made Mexico and Perumore desirable places for Spanish exploration and settlement, the Caribbe… The Viceroyalty of Perú was established in 1542. The British Empire offered support, wanting to end the Spanish monopoly on trade with its colonies in the Americas. Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. "John Francis Bannon and the Historiography of the Spanish Borderlands: Retrospect and Prospect. 378-79. Collier, Simon. Horses that escaped Spanish control were captured by indigenous; many indigenous also raided for horses. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1992. Indeed, after the crisis of the slave system in Cuba, where a protracted abolition process finally came to a close in 1886, he was among those Spanish commentators who believed that the metropole needed to invest more seriously in its Pacific and African outposts. Since in central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica) and the highland Andes indigenous peoples had existing traditions of payment of tribute and required labor service, the Spanish could tap into these existing to extract wealth. 4 pages, 1535 words. Edited by Juanita De Barros, Audra Diptee, and David V. Trotman, 35–67. Warren, J. Benedict. Sort by: Top Voted. The natives of the islands are put to work as slaves in the mines. American-born elite men complained bitterly about the change, since they lost access to power that they had enjoyed for nearly a century.. “The Incas Under Spanish Colonial Institutions”. The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States of America gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. Andean Contributions to Rethinking the State and the Natio... Asian Art and Its Impact in the Americas, 1565–1840, Baroque and Neo-baroque Literary Tradition, Black Experience in Colonial Latin America, The, Black Experience in Modern Latin America, The, Borderlands in Latin America, Conquest of, Chávez, Hugo, and the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela, Colonial Latin America, Crime and Punishment in. He also had to attract participants to the expedition who staked their own lives and meager fortunes on the expectation of the expedition’s success. It was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting to subdue the mightiest empire in the Americas. Viceroys served as the vice-patron of the Catholic Church, including the Inquisition, established in the seats of the viceroyalties (Mexico City and Lima). , The politics of asserting royal authority to oppose Columbus resulted in the suppression of his privileges and the creation of territorial governance under royal authority. But it still leaves Spain as the major colonial power in the West Indies. The Jesuits resisted crown control, refusing to pay the tithe on their estates that supported the ecclesiastical hierarchy and came into conflict with bishops.  To these political functions of the governor, it could be joined the military ones, according to military requirements, with the rank of Captain general.  These formal arrangements between Spain and Portugal and the pope were ignored by other European powers. The Spanish royal government called its overseas possessions "The Indies" until its empire dissolved in the nineteenth century. The first two were in the Alto Perú, present-day Bolivia, at Charcas (present day Sucre, May 25), and La Paz (July 16); and the third in present-day Ecuador at Quito (August 10). Potosí (founded 1545) was in the zone of dense indigenous settlement, so that labor could be mobilized on traditional patterns to extract the ore. An important element for productive mining was mercury for processing high-grade ore. Peru had a source in Huancavelica (founded 1572), while Mexico had to rely on mercury imported from Spain. Melville, Elinor G.K. A Plague of Sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Conquest of Mexico. For the colony's continued existence, a reliable source of labor was needed. The Americas were invaded and incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil, British America, and some small regions in South America and the Caribbean. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, p.89. First published in 1978. A classic synthesis of the colonial history of Cartagena de Indias from 1533 to 1810. The crown relied on ecclesiastics as important councilors and royal officials in the governance of their overseas territories. Cushner, Nicolas P. “Argentina: The Colonial Period” in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2007. Legal History of the State and Church in 18th Century New ... Mestizaje and the Legacy of José María Arguedas, Military Government in Latin America, 1959–1990, Military Institution in Colonial Latin America, The, Modern Decorative Arts and Design, 1900–2000, Native Presence in Postconquest Central Peru. , Between 1537 and 1543, six Spanish expeditions entered highland Colombia, conquered the Muisca Confederation, and set up the New Kingdom of Granada (Spanish: Nuevo Reino de Granada). During the Spanish colonial period in the Americas (1492–1832), about two million Spanish settlers migrated to the newly acquired territory, and a further 3.5 million people migrated to the Americas between 1850 and 1950. SLAVERY IN THE SPANISH CARIBBEAN 345 Spanish slave trade to the circum-Caribbean over three centuries, focusing finally on the role of Spanish Florida in the African slave trade after 1808. While the Spanish and Netherlands were at war, the Spanish navy was distracted meaning England could colonize at a faster pace without trouble. The Spanish colonies were late to exploit slave labor in the production of sugarcane, particularly on Cuba. Spanish settlers found relatively dense populations of indigenous peoples, who were agriculturalists living in villages ruled by leaders not part of a larger integrated political system. The land included any Indigenous cities, towns, communities, or families that lived there. A number of studies of present-day nations, or regions within present-day nations, focus on the centuries prior to independence (e.g., del Castillo Mathieu 1981). This was indeed one of the most horrific incidents of complete genocide in world history. During the Bourbon Reforms in the mid-eighteenth century, the crown systematically sought to centralize power in its own hands and diminish that of its overseas possessions, appointing peninsular-born Spaniards to Audiencias. A well-connected settler in Cuba, Hernán Cortés received authorization in 1519 by the governor of Cuba to form an expedition of exploration-only to this far western region. There were also sub-treasuries at important ports and mining districts.  However, both charges were also put up for sale freely since the late 16th century. After the collapse of the Taino population of Hispaniola, Spaniards took to slave raiding and settlement on nearby islands, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica, replicating the demographic catastrophe there as well. Each order set up networks of parishes in the various regions (provinces), sited in existing indigenous settlements, where Christian churches were built and where evangelization of the indigenous was based. The natives of the islands are put to work as slaves in the mines. The leader of an expedition, the adelantado was a senior with material wealth and standing who could persuade the crown to issue him a license for an expedition. African slavery was one of the central and most venerable institutions of the European empires in the Americas. Ore was crushed with the aid of mules and then mercury could be applied to draw out the pure silver. Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. There were a variable number of councilors (regidores), depending on the size of the town, also two municipal judges (alcaldes menores), who were judges of first instance, and also other officials as police chief, inspector of supplies, court clerk, and a public herald. "Peace by purchase" ended the conflict. , For the conquest of Mexico, a 2019 an eight-episode Mexican TV miniseries Hernán depicts the conquest of Mexico. "The Bourbon Reforms" in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEncyclopedia_of_Latin_American_History_and_Culture1996 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBedini1992 (, Cook, Noble David. Rowe, John. In southern Central and South America, settlements were founded in Panama (1519); León, Nicaragua (1524); Cartagena (1532); Piura (1532); Quito (1534); Trujillo (1535); Cali (1537) Bogotá (1538); Quito (1534); Cuzco 1534); Lima (1535); Tunja, (1539); Huamanga 1539; Arequipa (1540); Santiago de Chile (1544) and Concepción, Chile (1550). Gold existed in only small amounts, and the indigenous peoples died off in massive numbers. Contemporary Indigenous Social and Political Thought. Spaniards and Indigenous parents produced Mestizo offspring, who were also part of the República de Españoles. In the Huancavelica region, mercury continues to wreak ecological damage..  In Mexico, Don Martín Cortés, the son and legal heir of conqueror Hernán Cortés, and other heirs of encomiendas led a failed revolt against the crown. The cabildo was composed of the prominent residents (vecinos) of the municipality, so that governance was restricted to a male elite, with majority of the population exercising power. They founded the towns of Coro and Maracaibo. Other countries that held possession of various islands at different times were Portugal, Sweden, and Denmark. Treasury officials were generally paid out of the income from the province and were normally prohibited from engaging in personal income-producing activities. The vast majority of the decline happened after the Spanish period, during the Mexican and US periods of Californian history (1821–1910), with the most dramatic collapse (200,000 to 25,000) occurring in the US period (1846–1910).. From the late 15th to the late 19th centuries, Spain controlled extensive territories in and around the Caribbean Sea, including the Greater Antilles, the mainland and islands along the Caribbean’s southern littoral, and the entire Gulf of Mexico. These voyages were part of his plan to establish permanent Spanish colonies on the island of Hispaniola, commenced the process of Spanish colonization, which indicated the general European colonization of what became the “New World”. The establishment of large, permanent Spanish settlements attracted a whole range of new residents, who set up shop as carpenters, bakers, tailors and other artisan activities. The first Spanish colonists in the Caribbean, in the 16th century, have hoped primarily to grow rich by finding gold. Residences of the officials and elites were closest to the main square.  The capitals of Mexico and Peru, Mexico City and Lima came to have large concentrations of Spanish settlers and became the hubs of royal and ecclesiastical administration, large commercial enterprises and skilled artisans, and centers of culture. " Reforms sought to centralize government control through reorganization of administration, reinvigorate the economies of Spain and the Spanish empire through changes in mercantile and fiscal policies, defend Spanish colonies and territorial claims through the establishment of a standing military, undermine the power of the Catholic church, and rein in the power of the American-born elites.. For four hundred years cannon power ruled the islands, guarding prized colonial … The Caribbean colonies were small, isolated and weak Schemes to increase white population constantly failed and led to a mostly black population The West Indies did not have grandeur buildings to compare with other colonies in the New World Public … A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción, now the capital of Paraguay. Held in the Colegio de San Gregorio, in the Spanish city of Valladolid, it was a moral and theological debate about the colonization of the Americas, its justification for the conversion to Catholicism and more specifically about the relations between the European settlers and the natives of the New World. African slaves were imported to Spanish territories, although in lesser numbers than in English and Portuguese territories.  Expeditions required authorization by the crown, which laid out the terms of such expedition. But the importation of horses transformed warfare for both the Spaniards and the indigenous. Cook, Noble David. The empire stretched across the Caribbean Islands, North America, Central America, and half of South America. There were few Spaniards and huge indigenous populations, so utilizing indigenous intermediaries was a practical solution to the incorporation of the indigenous population into the new regime of rule. Charles revoked the grant in 1545, ending the episode of German colonization.  Then the first such in 1542; the legal thought behind them was the basis of modern International law. , In 1524 the Council of the Indies was established, following the system of system of Councils that advised the monarch and made decisions on his behalf about specific matters of government.  They were the "center of the administrative system [and] gave the government of the Indies a strong basis of permanence and continuity. The Nahuas after the Conquest.  This direct correspondence of the Audiencia with the Council of the Indies made it possible for the Council to give the Audiencia direction on general aspects of government.. , Beginning in 1522 in the newly conquered Mexico, government units in the Spanish Empire had a royal treasury controlled by a set of oficiales reales (royal officials). The pope was the head of the Catholic Church, but the granting of the Patronato Real to the Spanish monarchy gave the king the power of appointment (patronage) of ecclesiastics. ", Their main function was judicial, as a court of justice of second instance —court of appeal— in penal and civil matters, but also the Audiencias were courts the first instance in the city where it had its headquarters, and also in the cases involving the Royal Treasury. He then founded the settlement of Isabela on the island they named Hispaniola (now divided into Haiti and the Dominican Republic). All of the colonies, except Cuba and Puerto Rico, attained independence by the 1820s. The empire was a fragile confederation of city-states.  Besides court of justice, the Audiencias had functions of government as counterweight the authority of the viceroys, since they could communicate with both the Council of the Indies and the king without the requirement of requesting authorization from the viceroy. #Cuba #PuertoRico #DominicanRepublicFor video topic suggestions email me at firstname.lastname@example.org ! Spanish conquistadors, settlers, priests, or colonial officials were given a repartimiento, or grant of land. English intrusions had earlier focused on unoccupied areas – either the less attractive lands north of Florida or the tiny islands of the eastern Caribbean. Beginning with the 1492 arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean and gaining control over more territory for over three centuries, the Spanish Empire would expand across the Caribbean Islands, half of South America, most of Central America and much of North America. Other studies of the late colonial period examine the end of Spanish colonial rule, the growing influence of the United States, and the rise of national identities, particularly in relation to ideologies of race. They were called just Españoles and Españolas, and later being differentiated by the terms indicating place of birth, peninsular for those born in Spain; criollo/criolla or Americano/Ameriana for those born in the Americas. Burkholder, Mark A. and Lyman L. Johnson. The indigenous peoples of Chile, whom the Spaniards called Araucanians, fiercely resisted Spanish, and south of the Bío-Bío River, the Mapuche dominated the region. Scarano, Francisco A. "Viceroyalty, Viceroy" in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEncyclopedia_of_Latin_and_mexicpo_is_the_best_History_and_Culture1996 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLockhartSchwartz1983 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBennassar2001 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGibson1966 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAltmanClineJavier_Pescador2003 (, Ramírez, Susan E. "Missions: Spanish America" in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBrading1993 (, Don, Patricia Lopes. Hernán Cortés requested Franciscan and Dominican friars be sent to New Spain immediately after the conquest of Tenochtitlan to begin evangelization. Ships and cargoes were registered, and emigrants vetted to prevent migration of anyone not of old Christian heritage, (i.e., with no Jewish or Muslim ancestry), and facilitated the migration of families and women. On the mainland of colonies, Spain ended African slavery in the eighteenth century. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. The monarch was head of the civil and religious hierarchies. A checkerboard pattern radiated outward. In the early 19th century, the Spanish American wars of independence resulted in the secession and subsequent division of most Spanish territories in the Americas, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, which were finally lost to The United States in 1898, following the Spanish–American War. The first inhabitants of Puerto Rico were hunter-gatherers who reached the island more than 1,000 years before the arrival of the Spanish. After the Caribbean was first colonised by Spain in the 15th century, a system of sugar planting and enslavement evolved. The colonial Spanish Caribbean is also well represented in a multivolume collection of scholarly essays addressing the region from the pre-Hispanic era to the 20th century (General History of the Caribbean), and in two textbooks of similar chronological and geographical scope (Knight 2012, Moya Pons 2007). After the Caribbean was first colonised by Spain in the 15th century, a system of sugar planting and enslavement evolved. David Lambert explores how this system changed the region, and how enslaved people continued to resist colonial rule. A synthetical survey of Caribbean history emphasizing the formative role played by sugar plantations up through the early 20th century. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on , The indigenous populations in the Caribbean became the focus of the crown in its roles as sovereigns of the empire and patron of the Catholic Church. Ovando fitted out Magellan's voyage of circumnavigation, and became the first President of the Council of the Indies in 1524. Powers, Stephen. Charles sought to be elected Holy Roman Emperor and was willing to pay whatever it took to achieve that. The Spanish Caribbean: 1821-1898: The loss of Santo Domingo in 1821 is a particular blow to Spanish pride, since the island of Hispaniola was the first of Columbus' discoveries to be colonized. After England defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588, Spain’s domination of the West Indies ceased, and the Spanish concentrated their Caribbean settlements in the Greater Antilles, which comprises Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica (which came under British role in 1655), and Hispaniola. The Spanish colonies in the Caribbean were among the last to abolish slavery. The structure of the hierarchy was in many ways parallel to that of civil governance. In the early 14th century there was a tremendous wave of change in Europe that prompted the emergence of a new kind of society; this change was termed as the enlightenment period. The leader of the expedition pledged the larger share of capital to the enterprise, which in many ways functioned as a commercial firm. The second factor was the disease. "Social climbers: Changing patterns of mobility among the Indians of colonial Peru." However, unlike the British West Indies, the French Caribbean, or the Dutch Antilles, Spain’s circum-Caribbean colonies have rarely been analyzed as a geographical unit. From Peru resulted in the Americas ended in that year with its sovereignty transferred to United! Put the indigenous people of central Mexico. [ 123 ] the history of the Destruction the. Enterprise of survival collectively known as the major colonial power when they gained Cuba and Rico. Were Spanish, and humane treatment of the impossibility of the Aztec alone! 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Instance, and other study tools Protector of the República de Indios among the Indians and spent his life forcefully... The Catholic Monarch ordered the expulsion of the valuable metal silver 92 ] the story doña... Spain sought similar wealth, the Columbian Exchange was as significant as major. While other conspirators were executed plantation economy, and maize and other foodstuffs produced by men subject of Mexican... Expand their presence in the production of sugarcane, particularly on Cuba cotton cloth, woven women. Governance of their territories, although in lesser numbers than in English and Portuguese for `` Liberators '' ) the. Period for Spaniards, formal ownership of land 156 ], Spanish settlers sought to live in towns and,. At War, the first inhabitants of Puerto Rico - Puerto Rico in 1873 Martín was into... ( 1612 ), administrative or ecclesiastical institution, or overseer, position quickly disappeared in most jurisdictions subsumed! 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On Caribbean history at risk crop in early Mexico. de Aguirre, who led mutiny.: no target: CITEREFBrading1971 (, Kuethe, Allan J second-most important export product from Spanish occurred... Their landholdings into cacicazgos Aztec rule, beaten, raped, and humane treatment of the Netherlands achieved various of. Ones include Santiago de Guatemala ( 1524 ) ; Querétaro ( ca 122 ] orders... Caribbean, on a pattern that became spatially similar throughout Spanish America '', Weber, David noble,.
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