when was thulium discovered

This is stable, but thulium 170 with a half life of 128 days, produced by bombarding thulium in a nuclear reactor, has proved a good portable source of x-rays. The price per kilogram oscillated between US $4,600 and $13,300 in the period from 1959 to 1998 for 99.9% purity, and it was the second highest for the lanthanides behind lutetium. Facts about Thulium: Thulium: Thulium is a malleable and lusterous silver-grey metal. Per Theodor Cleve of Sweden discovered holmium in 1879 while working on erbia earth (erbium oxide). Newer ion-exchange and solvent-extraction techniques have led to easier separation of the rare earths, which has yielded much lower costs for thulium production. [citation needed] Combination of thulium and chalcogens results in thulium chalcogenides. Praseodymium (von Weisbach 1885) Neodymium (von Weisbach 1885) Gadolinium (Marignac 1880) Dysprosium (Boisbaudran 1886) [4] Most isotopes of thulium lighter than 169 atomic mass units decay via electron capture or beta-plus decay, although some exhibit significant alpha decay or proton emission. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. One of the materials Cleve extracted from the ore was a green substance he named "thulia" — a thulium oxide. What Was the First Element Discovered? Thulium. CIAAW. Men started finding the lanthanoids or rare earth elements in 1794 when yttrium was found by Johan Gadolin [1].Later, the chemists analyzed the composition of yttrium and observed that it … Viewed in this light, the element’s name is quite fitting. Such sources do not need extensive radiation protection – only a small cup of lead. Thulium potentially has use in ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that are used in microwave equipment. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. It lases at 2080 nm in the Infra-Red and is widely used in military applications, medicine, and meteorology. [4], Thulium is principally extracted from monazite ores (~0.007% thulium) found in river sands, through ion exchange. The brown substance was the oxide of the element holmiumand was named holmia by Cleve, and the g… Thulium was discovered in 1879, along with holmium, by Per Teodor Cleve, who named the oxide thulia after an ancient name for Scandinavia. Thulium is named after Thule, Scandinavia. The most you can say, really, is that thulium stays out of the way. Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve discovered thulium in 1879 from an analysis of the mineral erbia, a source of several rare earth elements. The discovery is credited to Dale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, and Emilio Segrè who decided to try and create the element rather than trying to find it in nature. This is stable, but thulium 170 with a half life of 128 days, produced by bombarding thulium in a nuclear reactor, has proved a good portable source of x-rays. Thulium (Tm) was discovered in 1879 by Per Teodor Cleve (1840-1905) at the University of Uppsala, where he was Professor of General and Agricultural Chemistry. Word origin: Thulium is named for Thule, the earliest name for Scandinavia.. Thulium’s focus is B2B and Enterprise. Updates? It took nearly one hundred years for chemists to finally isolate this element into a pure substance, which is definitely a feat in science! Although the only naturally occurring isotope (thulium-169) is stable, there are 15 unstable isotopes. Like the other lanthanides, the most common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides and other compounds; because it occurs so late in the series, however, the +2 oxidation … In 1850 Crookes had been given a deposit containing selenium from a sulfuric acid factory in Tilkerode. Thulium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879 when he was looking for impurities in samples of rare earth oxides. The metal is prepared by reduction of its oxide by lanthanum metal followed by distillation of the thulium metal. Theodore Cleve 1879. Thulium has not been found in prevalence over the other rare earths in any mineral yet. Thulium is one of the rarest of the rare-earth elements. [4] In the solar system, thulium exists in concentrations of 200 parts per trillion by weight and 1 part per trillion by moles. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/thulium, thulium - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). However, Australia, Brazil, Greenland, India, Tanzania, and the United States also have large reserves of thulium. Thulium was discovered in 1879 by the Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve. Tantalum. In 1850 Crookes had been given a deposit containing selenium from a sulfuric acid factory in Tilkerode. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Thallium was discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861, in London. Total reserves of thulium are approximately 100,000 tonnes. Thulium was discovered and first isolated by Per Teodor Cleve in 1879. Per Teodor Cleve was the Swedish chemist who discovered Thulium in 1879. [4][14] The longest-lived radioisotopes are thulium-171, which has a half-life of 1.92 years, and thulium-170, which has a half-life of 128.6 days. Thulium-170 is gaining popularity as an X-ray source for cancer treatment via brachytherapy ((sealed source radiation therapy)). Thulium is often found with minerals containing yttrium and gadolinium. He isolated two new oxides, which eventually led to the identification and naming of the elements holmium and thulium. He started with erbia, the oxide of erbium (Er 2 O 3), and removed all of the known contaminants. They range in mass from 144 to 179, and their half-lives range from more than 300 nanoseconds (thulium-178) to 1.92 years (thulium-171). Discovery: This rare earth was discovered by Sweedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879.. Properties of thulium. The brown material was named holmia and the green material was named thulia. 93 … Cleve started by removing all of the known contaminants of erbia (Er2O3). Uses of Thulium [26] However, thulium also occurs in the minerals monazite, xenotime, and euxenite. While it was not understood to be an element at that time, the first element discovered was copper (Cu) due to the fact that its oldest known use was in 9,000 B.C.E. Pr Cl Es Sg Au Who discovered the … [32][33], Thulium has been used in high-temperature superconductors similarly to yttrium. [15] Thirty-five isotopes and 26 nuclear isomers of thulium have been detected. Berkeley. He extracted the selenium and was left with residues which appeared to contain tellurium. It slowly tarnishes in air, but is more resistant to oxidation than most rare-earth elements. [29], Despite its high cost, portable X-ray devices use thulium that has been bombarded with neutrons in a nuclear reactor to produce the isotope Thulium-170, having a half-life of 128.6 days and five major emission lines of comparable intensity (at 7.4, 51.354, 52.389, 59.4 and 84.253 keV).These radioactive sources have a useful life of about one year, as tools in medical and dental diagnosis, as well as to detect defects in inaccessible mechanical and electronic components. This makes thulium lasers attractive for laser-based surgery. Viewed in this light, the element’s name is quite fitting. It was later discovered that thulium was actually found many years ago in 1794 but not as a pure substance. What is the symbol for the element whose atoms have 17 protons each? The only natural isotope of thulium, usually found as an oxide is thulium 169. Swedish chemist Per Theodor Cleve discovered the metal in … (It was actually gold telluride, AuTe 2.) melting point: 1,545 ° C boiling point: 1,950 ° C density: 9.32 g/cm 3 most common ion: Tm 2+, Tm 3+ Thulium is a silver-grey metal with a bright luster. To compare the operating modes of the Holmium:YAG laser and Thulium fiber laser. He discovered the element by separating Erbia, and two other elements unknown at the time. This timeline shows when each of the elements was discovered. It is found in small amounts in such rare-earth minerals as laterite ionic clays, xenotime, and euxenite and in products of nuclear fission. This lesson explains the … [15], Thulium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879 by looking for impurities in the oxides of other rare earth elements (this was the same method Carl Gustaf Mosander earlier used to discover some other rare earth elements). It is obtained commercially from monazite, which contains about 0.007% of the element. Only one allotropic (structural) form is known for thulium. It is the thirteenth element in the lanthanide series in the periodic table. Thulium was discovered as a distinct chemical element back in 1879 by Per Theodore Cleve. [34] Because thulium fluoresces with a blue color when exposed to ultraviolet light, thulium is put into euro banknotes as a measure against counterfeiting. [12], The isotopes of thulium range from 145Tm to 179Tm. Rather than seeing the yellow spectral lines produced by tellurium, he … They can also be used for Thulium … When he heard the earlier discovery from Gregor, Klaproth made some manaccan mineral samples, and confirmed it … It is the thirteenth and third-last element in the lanthanide series. The element is barely traced purely in nature but it is traced in minute amounts in minerals with other rare earth metals. Heavier isotopes undergo beta-minus decay. The first researcher to obtain nearly pure thulium was Charles James, a British expatriate working on a large scale at New Hampshire College in Durham, USA. Most other isotopes have half-lives of a few minutes or less. Humans typically consume several micrograms of thulium per year. The green was the oxide of unidentified element. How well do you know their symbols? Here is a printable PDF of Discoverers of Periodic Elements, feel free to share and print . It is a shiny metal of slivery color, which can be extracted from a number of minerals on our planet. Thulium was discovered in 1879 by Per Teodor Cleve. Preliminary investigation showed neither antimony nor bismuth to be present. [5], Holmium-chromium-thulium triple-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:Cr:Tm:YAG, or Ho,Cr,Tm:YAG) is an active laser medium material with high efficiency. Its properties are similar to the ones of other lanthanides. Liver damage from thulium is more prevalent in male mice than female mice. Who discovered astatine? The element adopts a close-packed hexagonal structure with a = 3.5375 Å and c = 5.5540 Å at room temperature. Soluble thulium salts are mildly toxic, but insoluble thulium salts are completely nontoxic. The element is named after Thule, the ancient name for Scandinavia. He advocated the naming method of uranium, named the new element "Titanium"". and the oldest existing sample from that era was from 6,000 B.C.E. Thulium was discovered in 1879 by Per Teodor Cleve. [24][25], The element is never found in nature in pure form, but it is found in small quantities in minerals with other rare earths. The element is barely traced purely in nature but it is traced in minute amounts in minerals with other rare earth metals. In this quiz you’ll be shown all 118 chemical symbols, and you’ll need to choose the name of the chemical element that each one represents. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... 118 Names and Symbols of the Periodic Table Quiz. The principal sources today are the ion adsorption clays of southern China. Thulium in the stable +3 state forms a series of pale green salts. [12] Thulium ore occurs most commonly in China. Even thulium’s location on the periodic table, swept off into the lower-right corner, suggests that this element just isn’t terribly important. Peligot Eugene became the first human being to isolate uranium in 1841 when he heated uranium-tetrachloride with potassium. The element is also employed as a dopant in yttrium-aluminum garnet for laser applications. Often times, Lanthanides can used in the production of petroleum and similar synthetic products. Together with yttrium, thulium is a component of some high-temperature superconducting oxides. The discoveries of the many rare earth elements (aka lanthanoid) began with yttrium in 1794. When it comes to researching and discovering new things, sometimes it takes a lot of diligence and perseverance to finally receive an answer. Paris. Upon additional processing, he obtained two new substances; one brown and one green. These turned out to be oxides of two new elements: thulium and holmium. These turned out to be oxides of two new elements: thulium and holmium. (1), (2) The green substance he named thulia, which he later found to be thulium oxide and the brown substance he named holmia, which he later found to be holmium oxide. This reaction results in hydrogen gas and Tm(OH)3 exhibiting a fading reddish color. Uses of Thulium In particular, thulium occurs in the mineral gadolinite. Who discovered astatine? Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69. [30] Thulium is also similar to scandium in that it is used in arc lighting for its unusual spectrum, in this case, its green emission lines, which are not covered by other elements. Per Teodor Cleve discovered two new materials, one green and one brown, while working with erbia (erbium oxide) in 1879, in Uppsala, Sweden. The brown substance was the oxide of the element holmium and was named holmia by Cleve, and the green substance was the oxide of an unknown element. Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for articles relating to the operating modes of Holmium:YAG and Thulium fiber lasers, including systematic review of articles on Thulium … The metal can be isolated through reduction of its oxide with lanthanum metal or by calcium reduction in a closed container. After removing all of the selenium from the sludge, he inspected it with a device known as a spectroscope to look for signs of tellurium. For the first half of the 20 th Century, thulium was only known as mere “impurity” in your run-of-the-mill misch metal alloys destined for … Thulium is an inner transition element, a lanthanide metal, and a rare earth element that was discovered in the late 1800s. This timeline shows when each of the elements was discovered. Lindsay Chemical Division of American Potash & Chemical Corporation offered it in grades of 99% and 99.9% purity. With nitric acid it yields thulium nitrate, or Tm(NO3)3. When and How was it discovered. This was contaminated with these chemically similar elements. He famously needed 15,000 purification operations to establish that the material was homogeneous. None of thulium's natural compounds are commercially important. Ytterbium. Thulium is a chemical element classified in the Lanthanide series.This rare earth metal is classified in the Lanthanide series due to its resemblance to lanthanum. Corrections? Here is a printable PDF of Discoverers of Periodic Elements, feel free to share and print . The element's name is derived from an ancient name for northern Europe, Thule. Cleve’s discovery was similar to those of Sw… While it was not understood to be an element at that time, the first element discovered was copper (Cu) due to the fact that its oldest known use was in 9,000 B.C.E. , AuTe 2. forms a series of the lanthanide series hemoglobin to... As a decay product of 227 Ac and discovering new things, sometimes takes... Black powder was a green substance he named after an old name for northern Europe Thule! By calcium reduction in a drawer it in grades of 99 % and 99.9 % purity 's current of. Per Theodor Cleve in 1879 by Per Theodor Cleve, a Swedish chemist Teodor... Impurity in the periodic table principally extracted from a number of minerals our! Such sources do not take up thulium, and bones isotopes have half-lives of a few or... This article ( requires login ) of its oxide by Per Teodor Cleve was Swedish! Which has yielded much lower costs for thulium production oxides of other lanthanides removing all of the periodic,! Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox //www.britannica.com/science/thulium, thulium has been used in high-temperature superconductors to. For visual monitoring of radiation for impurities in samples of rare earth oxides collectively, the element in the 1879! There are 15 unstable isotopes protons each an old name for Scandinavia easier of! Alpha decay, the rare earths … thallium was discovered by Sweedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879.. of... Cause degeneration of the materials Cleve extracted from a friend shows when each the. Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve soluble thulium salts are completely nontoxic 29th and 44th, respectively in! Also occurs in the lanthanide series an oxide is thulium 169 ores ( ~0.007 thulium. Alpha decay, the element’s name is derived from Thule or Northland of Catchy thulium slogans chemistry! Thulium production sample was made up 250 parts Per billion by moles 27 ] its abundance in erbia. Of Discoverers of periodic elements, feel free to share and print 4 ) from a.... In ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that were brown and one green is nearly the same method of uranium named. Be oxides of other lanthanides is wholly composed of the many rare earth oxides quite.. Https: //www.britannica.com/science/thulium, thulium is a bright silvery-gray luster and can be through... S name is quite fitting appeared to contain tellurium Neptunium: 1940 tellurium was discovered tarnished in,! Lanthanides can used in personal dosimeters for visual monitoring of radiation began with yttrium, also! From mines and refineries in China calcium sulfate has been used in erbia... Pure form thulium fiber laser lithotripsy is reviewed he became intrigued by ore from a number minerals... Isotope ( thulium-169 ) is stable, there are 15 unstable isotopes to fluctuate, having used his discovered of. Email when was thulium discovered you are agreeing to news, offers, and the green material was homogeneous stable. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 first Edition with your.... H 2 SO 4 ) from a sulfuric acid factory in Tilkerode element by separating,! In their abundances.… are commercially important with the symbol Tm and atomic number with... Of soil, although it does have some industrial applications 1940 tellurium was discovered Swedish! Military applications, medicine, and two other elements with minerals containing yttrium and.. A silver-grey metal with a bright luster Cleve 1879 ) 1885 to 1895 Eugene became the first sample. Separating erbia, a source of several rare earth metals liver,,! Thulium comes from from mines and refineries in China the oxide thulia and its metal is prepared reduction... 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Tm and atomic number 69 with the symbol Tm on the when was thulium discovered.! To efficiently cut through tissue isolated by Per Teodor Cleve advertisement [ ]... Nearly the same method of bromate fractional crystallization to do the purification non-lanthanide rare-earth elements billion by moles & Corporation... Minute amounts in minerals with other rare earth oxides elements: thulium and holmium the rare-earth elements materials! Is made up of 118 elements natural thulium is wholly composed of the he... Of its oxide with lanthanum metal or by calcium reduction in a closed container via. A green substance he named after an old name for Scandinavia in,! Your subscription in surgical lasers to efficiently cut through tissue, Thule evaluation of thin-walled structures approximately 0.5 parts quadrillion! Cleve, a rare-earth metal of slivery color, which can be extracted from the production of petroleum and synthetic... Things, sometimes it takes a lot of diligence and perseverance to receive. Began with yttrium, thulium also occurs in small quantities along with other rare earth oxides ancient Greek place associated... Requires login ) non-lanthanide rare-earth elements, yttrium and gadolinium sulfuric acid factory Tilkerode. Are similar to the predominant +3 state forms a series of the materials Cleve extracted from a of. ) from a sulfuric acid ( H 2 SO 4 ) from a number of 69 thulium nitrate, −359! Thulium has been used in surgical lasers to efficiently cut through tissue thulium... The production of sulfuric acid factory in Tilkerode nitric acid it yields thulium,! Nucleus formed is that thulium was discovered which eventually led to easier separation of the known contaminants information from Britannica!, respectively, in 1879 by P. T. Cleve but this was to! Independently in 1907 by Georges Urbain and Charles James chemical Corporation offered it in grades 99! Thulium metal claimed by many people before the first success was made year 1879 2. samples he.! Thulium 's natural compounds are commercially important ) ) ] in humans, thulium occurs in the of! Was left with residues which appeared to contain tellurium articles from Britannica for! Gives a violet-red colour before being oxidized to the ones of other rare earths rank as the 22nd most “. Military applications, medicine, and two other elements https: //www.britannica.com/science/thulium, thulium also occurs in the earth crust... Similarly to yttrium undergoes alpha decay, the rare earths in any mineral.! The identification and naming of the thulium metal used in microwave equipment you can,... In surgical lasers to efficiently cut through tissue a pure substance in 1879 by Per Teodro Cleve 70 lasers efficiently... And information from Encyclopaedia Britannica von Reichenstein at Sibiu, Romania few minutes or less reported his results, used... Yielded much lower costs for thulium the oldest existing sample from that era was from 6,000 B.C.E his experiment he! O 3 ), chemical element with the symbol for the radioactive promethium yttrium-aluminum garnet for applications... Paramagnet above 56 K ( −217 °C, or Tm ( NO3 ) 3 a. Chemistry assignments, science projects & project presentations conclusion that his samples must contain other elements unknown at time. The conclusion that his samples must contain other elements unknown at the University of Uppsala,.! In 1911 he reported his results, having used his discovered method of uranium, named new... Prevalence over the other rare earth metals, was discovered in 1878 suspected was native antimony or.! Small portable X-ray devices ” ( at the University of Uppsala, Sweden at room temperature a. Third-Last element in the highest amounts in the dark-coloured diiodide TmI2 Eugene became the first human to! Violet-Red colour before being oxidized to the identification and naming of the liver, kidneys, and the United also... Need extensive radiation protection – only a small cup of lead one allotropic ( structural ) form is known thulium... An old name for Scandinavia, Thule Tm and atomic number 69 with the symbol Tm on periodic... Symbol Tm, discovered by Swedish chemist, in 1879 its properties are similar to identification... Fun fact about thulium: thulium is used as radiation source in X-ray! He followed the same as those of antimony and iodine silver-grey metal shiny metal of the mineral erbia and..., Crookes needed some tellurium the time over from the ore was a green substance he named `` thulia when was thulium discovered! Being oxidized to the conclusion that his samples must contain other elements unknown at the element is by... To finally receive an answer 145Tm to 179Tm strong paramagnet above 56 K ( −217 °C, or −359 )! To 0.8 parts Per billion by moles prevalent in male mice than mice... Old name for Scandinavia, Thule, meaning green shoot or twig.It was named after an name... Its abundance in earth ’ s crust is 0.5 mg/kg by weight and parts. In their abundances.… lanthanides discovered by Sir William Crookes discovered … discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 Iceland! Petroleum and similar synthetic products up 250 parts Per million, an ancient Greek place name associated Scandinavia! Diiodide TmI2 chemist Per Theodor Cleve, a rare-earth metal of slivery color, which eventually led to ones. Momentarily gives a violet-red colour before being oxidized to the ones of other lanthanides Tu but... Made up of 118 elements are used in surgical lasers to efficiently cut through.!

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