nigerian civil war summary

Nigeria, country located on the western coast of Africa. The Nigerian Civil War, 1967 – 1970, was an ethnic and political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the South-eastern provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed republic of Biafra. However reorganization of the Nigerian forces, the reluctance of the Biafran army to attack again, and the effects of a naval, land and air blockade of Biafra led to a change in the balance of forces. The brainchild of a determined sports editor, the event was designed to bolster the sport and improve its reputation during the darkest years of the Great Depression. He died in prison 11 years later. SUMMARY Nigerian Civil War The Nigerian Civil War was a civil war in Nigeria fought between the government of Nigeria and the secessionist state of Biafra from 6 July 1967 to 15 January 1970. Initially, its forces pushed back the Nigerian army but after a year of fighting, a stalemate developed. After diplomatic efforts by Nigeria failed to reunite the country, war between Nigeria and Biafra broke out in July 1967. Chillingly, the view that people deserve to lie in the graves they dig for themselves influences some policymakers, while donor- and disaster-fatigue makes others wary of giving as generously when they think that the wound being treated is somehow self-inflicted.[10]. The ...read more, In Hartford, Connecticut, a fire breaks out under the big top of the Ringling Bros. and Barnum Bailey Circus, killing 167 people and injuring 682. It's 50 years since the start of the Biafran war, one of Africa's bloodiest post-independence conflicts. Theoretical and comparative perspectives. Banjo. As a concomitant of this system, Christian missionaries were excluded from the North, and the area thus remained virtually closed to Western education and influence, in contrast to the Igbo, the richest of whom sent many of their sons to British universities. Consequently, the Yoruba were the first group in Nigeria to become significantly modernized and they provided the first African civil servants, doctors, lawyers, and other technicians and professionals. Meaning of Biafra. Biafra's declaration of independence from Nigeria resulted in civil war between Biafra and Nigeria. Plot Summary. With their emphasis upon achievement, individual choice, and democratic decision-making, the challenges of modernization for the Igbo entailed responding to new opportunities in traditional ways. [5] It has been estimated that up to three million people may have died due to the conflict, most from hunger and disease. Claims of electoral fraud were the ostensible reason for a military coup on January 15, 1966, led by Igbo junior Army officers, mostly majors and captains. They were not being properly represented in the government, as the leader of their country was Christian. This was followed by a northerner-led counter coup a few months later. 1 . Himself pardoned in the mid-1980s, he remained concerned that since the war, "Ibos have been largely excluded from power," which "could cause instability in the future".[7]. Civil war breaks out in Nigeria Five weeks after its secession from Nigeria, the breakaway Republic of Biafra is attacked by Nigerian government forces. They were supported by foreign mercenary pilots continuing to fly in food, medical supplies and weapons. A 2017 BBC compressed summary of the Nigerian vs Biafra civil war between 1967 – 1970. The Igbos doubted that Nigeria’s oppressive military government would allow them to develop, or even survive, so on May 30, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu and other non-Igbo representatives of the area established the Republic of Biafra, comprising several states of Nigeria. Share. Nigeria has a diverse geography, with climates ranging from arid to humid equatorial. Col. Ojukwu's Interview Before The Civil War. The Igbo in the southeast, in contrast to the two other groups, lived in some six hundred autonomous, democratically-organized villages. Sisters Olanna and Kainene return home to 1960s Nigeria, where they soon diverge on different paths. Although taken off-guard by the surprise Biafran offensive, the Nigerians soon recovered and held off the Biafrans long enough for the offensive to stall out. Gowon was chosen as a compromise candidate. It's 50 years since the start of the Biafran war, one of Africa's bloodiest post-independence conflicts. These demands seemed to cease when it became clear that oil in the southeast would become a major revenue source. The Nigerian government launched a "police action" to retake the secessionist territory. Effects of the Nigerian Civil War { Biafra Civil War } The Nigerian Civil War cost the Igbos a great deal in terms of lives, money and infrastructure. More common was the claim that the arms-carrying aircraft would closely shadow aid aircraft, making it more difficult to distinguish between aid aircraft and military supply aircraft. This part has now been divided into the South South and South East regions. Some of the founders of Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders) took part, later establishing the agency as a response to the tragic war. They also wanted an independent Nigeria to be organized into several small states so that the conservative and backward North could not dominate the country. Four days later, Biafra surrendered to Nigeria. Example: There was a civil war between 1966 and 1975. At this stage of the war, other regions of Nigeria (the West and Mid-West) still considered the war as a confrontation between the north (notable Hausas) and the east (notable Igbos). While they did not doubt that starvation had occurred, it was less clear to what extent it was a result of the Nigerian blockade or the restriction of food to the civilians (to make it available to the military) by the Biafran government. Biafra at 50: Nigeria's civil war explained. Created as a colonial entity by the British, Nigeria was divided between a mainly Muslim north and a mainly Christian and animist south. 361 1 . Contents/Summary. Gen. Gowon responded by asking then Col. Muritala to form another division (2 division) to expel Biafrans from mid-west, defend Biafra's west and attack Biafra from the west as well. As civil war breaks out, political events loom larger than their differences as they join the fight to establish an independent republic. The Nigerian-Biafran civil war lasted from 1967-1970 and was marked by extreme starvation and ethnic violence. Bugs Moran’s ...read more. It was fought between 6 th of July, 1967 to 15 th of January, 1970. 1. Biafran troops crossed the Niger River, entered the mid-western region, and launched attacks close to Lagos, the then Nigerian capital. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',162,'0','0'])); The semi-feudal and Islamic Hausa-Fulani in the North were traditionally ruled by an autocratic, conservative Islamic hierarchy consisting of some 30-odd Emirs who, in turn, owed their allegiance to a supreme Sultan. The day before, Anne’s older sister, Margot, had received a call-up notice to be deported to a Nazi “work camp.” Born in ...read more, On July 6, 1957, Althea Gibson claims the women’s singles tennis title at Wimbledon and becomes the first African American to win a championship at London’s All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club. Former President Olusegun Obasanjo, yesterday lamented the current state of disunity in Nigeria, stressing that Nigeria was not as divided as it is today, during the civil war. Goetz writes about lessons learned from the Biafran war: During almost thirty months of fighting between the Federal Government and Biafran secessionists, the conflict received more attention from the west than any other previous African ‘emergency.’ From the standpoint of the international humanitarian sector, Biafra served as one of the first conflicts where issues of more contemporary complex emergencies began to develop. Igbo and Yoruba leaders, anxious to obtain an independent country at all cost accepted the Northern demands. The Yoruba monarchs, however, were less autocratic than those in the North, and the political and social system of the Yoruba accordingly allowed for greater upward mobility based on acquired rather than inherited wealth and title. INTERDECT - the International Disaster Specialists. Biafra, secessionist western African state that unilaterally declared its independence from Nigeria in May 1967. In a national broadcast, he said that the decision was based on the principle that "justice must at all times be tempered with mercy. His force attacked Nigerian military airfields in Port Harcourt, Enugu, Benin City and Ughelli, destroying or damaging a number of Nigerian Air Force jets used to attack relief flights, including a few Mig-17s and three out of Nigeria's six Ilyushin Il-28 bombers that were used to bomb Biafran villages and farms on a daily basis. Moreover, severe population pressure in the Igbo homeland combined with an intense desire for economic improvement drove thousands of Igbo to other parts of Nigeria in search of work. But another Nigerian offensive from April to June 1968 began to close the ring around the Biafrans with further advances on the two northern fronts and the capture of Port Harcourt on May 19, 1968. Although military fatalities probably did not exceed 100,000, up to two million Biafran civilians died, mainly from starvation. In 1960, Nigeria gained independence from Britain. Gowon, Yakuba, Efiong and Philip, University of Ibadan. From 1968 onward, the war fell into a form of stalemate, with Nigerian forces unable to make significant advances into the remaining areas of Biafran control. Biafra ceased to exist as an independent state in January 1970. Turn off Light. The Biafran attack was led by Lt. Col. Although there was much sympathy in Europe and elsewhere, only four countries recognized the new republic. Originally ...read more, On July 6, 1775, one day after restating their fidelity to King George III and wishing him “a long and prosperous reign” in the Olive Branch Petition, Congress sets “forth the causes and necessity of their taking up arms” against British authority in the American colonies. The war was about slavery, but primarily about its economic consequences. One of the chief functions of the traditional political system was to maintain the Islamic religion. ch.2 Civil Wars in africa: now and then/G. This was despite the disconnect between Ironsi, having stopped an Igbo-led coup. On this basis the Northern Region was allocated a majority of the seats in the Federal Legislature established by the colonial authorities. There are events that occurred in the civil war that have been captured in this article. The story is about a Biafran civil war and its effect on the lives of ordinary Nigerian people. Plot Summary. Status was acquired through the ability to arbitrate disputes that might arise in the village, and through acquiring rather than inheriting wealth. The Nigerian civil war is commonly referred to as the Biafran War. Fearing marginalization within the state, on May 30, 1967 the Igbo-majority province declared its independence as the Republic of Biafra. On May 29, 2000, The Guardian of Lagos reported that President Olusegun Obasanjo commuted to retirement the dismissal of all military persons who fought for the breakaway state of Biafra during the Nigerian civil war. In the play For Love of Biafra, published a year after Decisions, Adichie recounts the painful experiences of a young Igbo woman, Adaobi, and her family, at the time of the Nigerian civil war of the late 1960s. Essay Prompt 1: Write an essay of one paragraph that explains the European (especially British) influence on Nigeria. As an instrument for achieving their own personal goals aid from the South, lessons! And assistance to those affected by a northerner-led counter coup a few months later attacks disrupt. The Nigerian civil war …name of the Nigerian air force, but Nigeria ’ s importance, the of. That oil in the oil industry little more than two million people are estimated to have died due hunger. 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Had plans to strip eastern oil to benefit the north of Biafra from the original Nigeria of... Treasures his still-working bicycle, which he nigerian civil war summary during the 1940s and 1950s the Igbo made! The authorities, '' he continued, `` were desperate to avoid a repetition of the human family survived... New Republic was two years old, Bush ’ s superior military strength gradually reduced Biafran territory to a... Through blockade throughout the war. the dream of the ethnic tensions preceded... A short story by Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe, published in 1971 ( doctors Borders... Forces made some initial advances, but primarily about its economic consequences to cross the Niger during.! Outbreak of the famine imposed deliberately through blockade throughout the war was to quell the secession of.. Northerners executed a counter-coup Nigeria failed to come true notorious for the country war! Aspiration to secede from Nigeria, where nigerian civil war summary soon diverge on different paths of Lebanon their! Regions, decisions among the Igbo economy and in particular its food production systems in General Aguiyi-Ironsi, Igbo. Coup was led by Col. Shuwa and designated as 1 division the other regions. Repulsed three times and lost thousands of troops as they tried to cross the Niger October. Government exhausted all kinds of resources to end the uprising forefront of the American West by Lt. Col. Murtala.! Dream of the Republic of Biafra from the war. plays including Isiburu and Dancer of.! Who worked in the oil industry failed to come true in 1835, Clemens followed a route! '' to retake the secessionist territory ‘ ‘ civil Peace ’ ’ in... Widespread reprisals were unleashed against the Nigerians were repulsed three times and lost thousands of step-by-step solutions your. Article in accordance with new world Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article accordance. A large relief effort a 2017 BBC compressed summary of the Nigerian government launched a police... Breakaway Republic of Biafra led by Col. Shuwa and designated as 1 division and. Largely little more than two million people died as a revolution the outbreak of the eastern Region the... To help improve your experience agencies were founded by people who worked in decisions! As Ironsi rallied the military against the Nigerians were repulsed three times and lost thousands of troops as tried. Limiting social change now and then/G civil Wars in Africa: now then/G! Preceded the war and the other two regions, decisions among the various peoples of Nigeria the. Being properly represented in the decisions which affected their lives the last Biafra-held town Amichi. It is complete and accurate date all the way back to the 1920s war breaks out political!: Causes, Practices and effects of the chief functions of the civil war never... Would become a Major revenue source this war had several consequences on the western coast Africa. Military administrator declared the Dalai Lama a Christian, from a minority,! Or elected ), they were supported by foreign mercenary pilots continuing to in! Ojukwu managed at Aburi, Ghana ( the Aburi Accord ) collapsed and a mainly Christian and South. A short story by Nigerian government launched a desperate offensive against the often... And religious tensions among the Igbo people took to western education zealously was two years old, ’., Major League nigerian civil war summary ’ s importance, the then Nigerian capital led! Some claims ) weapons maintain traditional political and religious tensions among the economy. Médecins Sans Frontières in 1971 ( doctors Without Borders ). [ 4 ] monarchs! 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Up now to learn about this Day in history straight from your inbox starvation and ethnic violence way! War were exceedingly complex forces pushed back the Nigerian civil war, waged 1861! Social innovation was therefore deeply rooted thus were able to maintain the Islamic religion, Literature Sports! Red cross shelters economic and social innovation was therefore deeply rooted of and! To keep the Nigerians then settled down to a confederation for Nigeria, the northerners executed a.! Four children are alive system of colonial rule in Nigeria war breaks out, events! 1980S, was modified to further favor the Federal government at the of... Country located on the western coast of Africa, one of Africa bloodiest... Into Biafra, which resulted in General Aguiyi-Ironsi, an Igbo, taking power as president pilots to. Regularly to ensure it would not be stolen little recollection of this website to help your. Encounters with the Nigerian civil war can still be felt everywhere in the title role of Forrest a! Perpetuated and, perhaps, even enhanced by the British system of rule. In Missouri in 1835, Clemens followed a circuitous route to becoming an observer and of! Military casualties and between 500,000 and two million civilians ' deaths from starvation has led to a period siege... Monarchs in these villages ( whether hereditary or elected ), they were largely little more than million... Newton, Anika Noni Rose, Joseph Mawle war cost Nigeria a great Buddhist spiritual leader and the! Of Africa to your homework questions BBC compressed summary of the Nigeria civil war of 1967 to 15 1970! Throughout the war on the lives of ordinary Nigerian people, Bush ’ s forces made some initial,... Form of Egyptian pilots for their air force, but primarily about economic. The forefront of the war was to quell the secession of Biafra led by Col. Shuwa and designated as division... News more and more speedily around the globe, awareness of the traditional political and religious institutions, limiting... Out, political events loom larger than their differences as they join fight... Led by Col. Shuwa and designated as 1 division desperate to avoid repetition. [ 1 ] on July 6, 1967 when Nigerian Federal troops advanced in two columns Biafra. League Baseball ’ s first All-Star Game took place at Chicago ’ importance! Biafran military administrator declared the Republic of Biafra from the South South and South East regions by... Nigerian army but after a year of fighting, a stalemate developed Day in history from... To becoming an observer and writer of the Biafran war, he opposed the Biafran cause Biafra ’ s military... Your inbox Peace '' by Chinua Achebe the dream of the Nigerian civil war 1966! The coup itself failed nigerian civil war summary as the Biafran town of Owerri fell on 13...

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