how do sea otters play

Sea Otters play an important role in the ecosystem, and may even be mitigating some of the harmful environmental impacts of human activity. The specific role of the sea otters in the eco-system is as follows; ‘’Kelps’’ are brown algae seaweeds growing rapidly underwater covering 25% of the world’s coastlines. Sea otters are ‘’keystone species” because of their critical role in maintaining the health and stability of the nearshore marine ecosystems. They like to swim on their back and sides and can see just as well underwater as they can above. This type of relationship between a predator (sea otter), herbivore (urchin), and plant (kelp) is known as a trophic cascade. Sea otters dive to rocky reefs, where they collect invertebrates and also a large rock. By controlling the number of crabs, sea otters helped sea slugs and other tiny marine grazers flourish. Both wild and captive otters will slide down the same mud or ice path repeatedly. However, otters can hold their breath for deep dives to the ocean floor. Sea otters also have thick, brown fur that insulates them against the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. In fact, sea otters have the world’s finest and densest fur—up to a million hairs per square inch! By controlling the number of crabs, sea otters helped sea slugs and other tiny marine grazers flourish. Thus, to survive the cold temperatures and maintain warmth, the sea otters feed on food amounting to an average of 25% of their body weight every day. The sea slugs’ grazing kept the eelgrass blades free from a smothering coat of algae. Fourthly, sea otters are also threatened by predators that live underwater like orcas, sea lions, and bald eagles. Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are marine mammals inhabiting the shores of the Aleutian Islands and along the North American coast up to Mexico. Wild sea otters typically have a … Seagrass meadows are significant to the ecosystem as they result in the protection of the coastal regions and preservation of the habitat for fish. Luckily their coat … Some researchers believe that sliding is a form of play in river otters. They are much more buoyant … While studying the health of Elkhorn Slough, an estuary on Monterey Bay, Dr. Brent Hughes noticed that beds of eelgrass, an important component of many estuaries, were healthy there compared to other estuaries on the central coast. Hughes discovered that sea otters were feeding on crabs that in turn were feeding on sea slugs. The specific role of the sea otters in the eco-system is as follows; 1. Without Sea Otters Kelp Forests Are Consumed By Urchins (credit: Mike Kenner), The Sea Otter's Big Appetite Helps Control Sea Urchins (credit: Joe Tomoleoni), Without Sea Otters Eel Grass Is Covered In Thick Algae (credit: Brent Hughes), With Sea Otters Sea Slugs Are Able To Consume Algae (credit: Brent Hughes). What makes sea otters special? All Rights Reserved. By repeatedly foraging these contaminated prey, the otters put themselves at risk of harmful diseases. Eventually, the seagrasses become clean and healthy resulting in higher populations. The animals often wrap themselves in kelp so they do not drift away in the ocean’s swirling currents. Studies show that the presence of otters increased the carbon storage of kelp forests from 4.4 to 8.7 megatons. Among the widespread species of seagrasses is the Zostera, also known as the eelgrass that has been on the decline in the recent past due to the large population of crabs that have been feeding on them. Unlike most marine mammals that use blubber to stay warm in the cold ocean waters, sea otters rely on their extremely thick fur. Sea otters are a keystone species, meaning their role in their environment has a greater effect than other species. Such an increase is a result of the food web that forms within this ecosystem formed by the sea otters, crabs, and sea slugs. The sea otter can usually be found in kelp beds, and looks very much like lumps of kelp. Sea otters have a symbiotic relationship with kelp forests. Sea otter fur is the densest of all mammals, with about 100,000 hairs per square centimeter. Sea urchins are herbivores and feed on seaweeds like kelp. The high metabolism comes from the food eaten by the sea otters. Otters can stay submerged for five to eight minutes, depending on the species, because their heart rate slows, and they use less oxygen. Not all otters use tools, but sea otters use them all the time. Sea otters are foragers that eat mostly hard-shelled invertebrates, including sea urchins and a variety of clams, mussels, and crabs. Additionally, the damaging physical effects of oil contamination, as well as toxicological effects from ingestion and inhalation can lead to severe, long-term organ damage and other potentially life-threatening conditions. Otters help protect kelp from sea urchins, which in … In the 1970s, a scientist named Dr. James Estes recognized that he could study the influence of sea otters on other species in their environment by comparing the coastal habitats in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands where sea otters had recovered to similar places where sea otters were absent. Sea otters are mammals that spend most of their lives in the ocean. What Is The Importance Of Insects In The Ecosystem. Some otters dive deep and end up nabbing things like sea urchins and Dungeness crabs off the seafloor, while others find their favorite foods at mid-range depths of about 40 feet (12 meters), collecting small shellfish and worms. We've … Case study: Sea Otters →Crabs → Sea Slugs → Micro Algae → Eelgrass. As sea otters reclaimed their role as predators in this estuary, they helped restore balance to this important habitat connecting land to … Adult sea otters may eat as much as 9 kg (20 lbs.) Sea otters are ‘’keystone species” because of their critical role in maintaining the health and stability of the nearshore marine ecosystems. Diet A sea otter has a metabolic rate much higher than most mammals of similar size, and must consume large quantities of food. Upon returning to the surface, they float on their backs, with the rock on the stomachs. Their favorite foods are often found buried in the sand or nestled in rocks. Although capable of walking on land, otters may spend their whole lives in water. Some predators like the great white shark may kill the otters but not feed on them. Sea otters live in a cold ocean environment and rely on two traits to keep warm: a dense fur coat for insulation and very high metabolism to generate body heat. Secondly, oil spills result in the death of sea otters. Watch this great short film to understand more about keystone species: While scuba diving in the Aleutian Islands, Dr. Estes noticed places where the seafloor was covered with sea urchins and no kelp remained. The Deep Sea Ecosystem: Life In The Dark And Cold Waters. Sea otters feed mostly on sea urchins, mollusks, crustaceans, and fish. Facts about otters Otters and play. More kelp forests result in fewer urchin barrens, as well as an increase in the absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and release oxygen back into the air. Tips for spotting a sea otter. Take sliding, one of the most common otter amusements. The males are polygynous as they may take up multiple female partners. This metabolism needs to be continually stoked with energy in the form of food, and sea otters must consume as much as 25% of their body weight each day in order to stay warm and survive. People affect sea otter populations through direct shootings and trapping sea otters in fishing nets. By studying how sea otters were foraging in the Elkhorn Slough—what prey species they were eating and where they were feeding—Dr. Besides existing in the wild, otters are also raised in captivity like public aquariums and zoos. Sea otters feast upon molluscs such as clams and mussels collected from dives to the sea floor. Can otters use tools? A third group prefers to forage around in shallow waters for snails. They have thick fur that generates heat to keep their bodies warm. Sea otter fur is the densest of any mammal at about 1 million hairs per square inch (We have 100,000 hairs on our entire head). Sea otters are an iconic species, representing the beauty and diversity of marine life found along California’s coastline. Sea otters do an excellent job of eating large sea urchins over eight centimetres in diameter, but they tend to leave behind smaller urchins. They also rely on kelp to provide them cover from predators, and a habitat for the animals they hunt. Female: Adult female Alaskan sea otters can reach weights of up to 33 kg (72 lbs. Sea otters are a keystone species and play a critical role in the food web of the kelp forest, so much so that even terrestrial species are influenced by sea otter activity. Without sea otters, sea urchins can overpopulate the sea floor and devour the kelp forests that provide cover and food for many other marine animals. In 2001, a female otter at the Monterey … All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com. Sea otters play a small role in mitigating global climate change, but their impact points to a larger lesson: wildlife conservation can save vegetation needed to reduce CO2. Sea otters reside in the underwater which has extremely cold temperatures. Fortunately, sea otters feed on sea urchins resulting in the preservation of the kelp forests. Sea otters have webbed feet, water-repellent fur to … The giant otter is the longest of the otters, sometimes reaching 7 feet from nose to tail, and weighing up to 85 pounds, but sea otters are much stouter and large male sea otters in particular are bulkier and heavier than giant otters. Almost all otters have webbed feet, some more webbed than others, and they can close off their ears and nose as they swim underwater. A keystone species is one that exerts a large, stabilizing influence throughout an ecological community. Sea otters are carnivores that feed on an array of marine species—mostly invertebrates like crabs, clams, urchins, snails and worms. Luckily, we stopped hunting them, and sea otter populations are recovering. At the age of 7 years, otters can breed successfully. Their dense, short under-fur is overlain by darker, coarse guard hairs that help repel wa… This digital environment mimics the experience one would have at a physical event, while in the virtual world. Humans almost hunted sea otters to extinction for their fur! Copyright © 2020 Sea Otter Savvy. The complexity of trophic cascades can vary extensively from place to place, but this basic pattern is the foundation for understanding how sea otters fit into a healthy coastal environment. These latter resear… Thus, the reduction in the numbers of the sea urchins, caused by the presence of sea otters, prevents the decimation of the kelp forests. While we wish we could see you in person, we hope Sea Otter Play will keep everyone enthused and … The truth is, we don’t even really know what we’re missing.” -Lilian Carswell, US Fish and Wildlife Service Southern Sea Otter Recovery Coordinator, High metabolism means they control numbers of their prey species. Sea otters are good at floating on the waters surface, as air trapped in their fur makes them more buoyant. These filter feeders indiscriminately sieve particles out of the water resulting in them accumulating high concentrations of pollutants and disease pathogens. Why do otters have fur? This challenge has affected even large estuaries such as the Elkhorn Slough Estuary located on Monterey Bay in Central California, US. They provide crucial habitat and food for other marine organisms and also help to contain coastal erosion. However, this is not enough to keep the sea otters warm. Some scientists have theorized that sliding isn't play but rather a functional way to get around. They’re also considered a keystone species because of their critical importance to the health and stability of the nearshore marine ecosystem. What Is The Role Of Vultures In The Ecosystem And Wildlife Conservation? The sea otter spends most of its time in the water but, in some locations, comes ashore to sleep or rest. By Sharon Omondi on December 12 2019 in Environment. They eat shellfish, spiny sea urchins, crabs, shrimp and small fishes. Webbed feet and powerful tails, which act like rudders, make otters strong swimmers. The ‘’Exxon Valdez’ oil disaster that occurred in Prince William Sound on March 24, 1989, proved that the single greatest threat to the otter today is an oil spill. In contrast, Dr. Estes noticed that places with healthy sea otter populations often had healthy kelp forest habitat as well. The organisms sea otters had evolved alongside suddenly lost the main predator that kept them in check. They are adapted to this kind of environment by possessing a dense fur coat which insulates the body from cold. In comparison, you probably have about 100,000 hairs or fewer on your whole head. Sea otters can sometimes be seen off sandy beaches — and even local harbors. This is an area of the sea without kelp forest cover. A keystone species is one that exerts a large, stabilizing influence throughout an ecological community. Subsequent generations of Californians didn’t know anything else, but as sea otters reclaim their historic range, I expect we will continue to discover far-reaching ecological effects that we hadn’t anticipated. The otters’ playful juggling of rocks has been reported many times. Sea otters are streamlined marine mammals, which look like a larger, fluffier, version of their freshwater cousins, river otters. They typically … Nonetheless, the managers of this estuary have recently reintroduced sea otters that have resulted in the sudden increase in the seagrass beds. Otters have some interesting relatives. Because sea otters do not have any insulating fat, the fur is responsible for heat maintenance. Thirdly, sea otters expose themselves to diseases and pollutants through their feeding habits. These otters have brown-to-gray fur, and their undersides are a lighter, silvery shade. Dr. Estes found that the presence of sea otters had a dramatic effect on coastal habitats (see case study below). When sea otter populations are healthy, urchin populations are kept in check, and kelp is abundant. Consequently, the sea otters die from hypothermia. Otters are known to be very lively animals and they love playing so much. By controlling the size and number of sea urchins (sea urchins are one of their favorite foods, and they eat the larger ones first), sea otters created the opportunity for kelp to grow and flourish, which in turn created habitat for numerous other kelp forest dwellers. For some species, otters of all age classes have been observed sliding. Sea otters feed on a large number of crabs to retain their body weight. A sea otter rests on its back with its head, arms and flippers in the air, and looks like two lumps close together. Sea otters are mammals, and therefore breathe air. The ocean can be a harsh environment, but the sea otter has developed adaptations to help it survive. Mating takes place between 15-30 minutes. A collection of kelps result in the formation of kelp forests. ), and female California sea otters weigh on average 20 kg (44 lbs.) When urchins are uncontrolled by predators they become larger and more abundant, feeding on kelp until little remains. “With the near extinction of sea otters during the fur trade, our coastal ecosystems were radically downgraded and simplified. Places such as British Columbia, Aleutian Islands, and the Big Sur coast of California have had major improvements in the health of their coastal ecosystems due to the re-introduction of otters. Fragmentation and recovery from fur trade hunting created opportunity for scientific study. of food each day. They use the rock as a table against which they smash their shelled prey to … Places that are overrun with urchins are known as “urchin barrens”. With the reduced crabs in the meadows, the population of the sea slugs increase and feed on the algae seen growing on the leaves of the seagrass. They have an interesting method of eating their prey. OTTER MOMS ARE TOTALLY GAME FOR ADOPTION. North American river otters, also called Canadian otters, have long, muscular, streamlined bodies with short legs and fully webbed feet bearing non-retractable claws. The interesting bit about sea otters is that the reproduction process begins with the male courting the female. Sea otters and their pups aren't merely cute, they're also utterly (or otterly) fascinating. Sea otters play a vital role in the health and stability of the nearshore marine ecosystem as a keystone species. Sea Otter Play uses a premier virtual events platform called 6Connex. A keystone species is one that is comparatively rare but has a strong influence on its environment. As of 2006, the lingering oil in the area continued to affect the population of these valuable sea creatures. These sea creatures also depend on a high metabolism rate to generate body heat. The grazers in turn kept the eelgrass blades clean and healthy. Furthermore, countries such as the United States, Russia, and Canada have set up marine protected areas where activities such as dumping of waste and oil drilling are prohibited. Their nostrils and ears close to keep water out, and waterproof fur keeps them warm. Sea otters can be found in the frigid kelp forests of Northern California, and would not survive the cold without their specialized fur. Sea otters have circular, furry faces with short noses, rounded eyes and ears, and … Their appetite for these invertebrate species exerts a strong influence on prey size and number and how they live and move in their habitat. On land, the otters face threats from bears and coyotes. Otters eat a great deal because their bodies burn energy quickly. The Seattle Aquarium was the first institution to nurture sea otters right from conception to adulthood with the birth of ‘’Tichuk’’ in 1979. Crude oil normally penetrates the fur of the otter destroying the air layer that is trapped next to its skin. These small urchins also readily devour kelp, and if their numbers swell, they begin to thin out kelp forests. Urchin barrens are disastrous to the environment as they result in an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the likelihood of coastal erosion and storm surges. A population that once extended continuously along the North Pacific Rim was reduced to a few small remnant colonies. Specific otter play activities are useful for survival. Their small heads widen to long necks and shoulders, and they have flattened, well-muscled tails. A new trophic cascade involving sea otters was recently discovered in a Central California estuary. If you haven't been swept up by the otter craze that's sweeping America, the time is now! They eat sea urchins and other invertebrates that graze on giant kelp. However, countries around the globe have enacted legislation outlawing their hunting. To achieve this, the sea otters that are carnivorous feed on various marine species such as crabs, clams, urchins, snails, and worms. The grazers in turn kept the eelgrass blades clean and healthy. As top predators, sea otters are critical to maintaining the balance of nearshore ecosystems, such as kelp forests, embayments and estuaries. They have four legs to move easily on land, and a long tail to swim through the water. In the recent past, sea otters nearly became extinct due to large-scale commercial hunting for its pelt. Wrapping pups in seaweed: Sea otter pups are born without the ability to swim. Since they have to consume at least 25% of their body weight each day to stay alive, sea otters prey on filter feeders such as mussels and clams. They cleverly use rocks as ‘tools’ to smash the shells by placing the rock upon their chest while floating on their backs and bashing the mollusc against it repeatedly. Sea urchins feed voraciously on kelp forests thereby damaging the eco-system leading to what is known as "urchin barrens." As sea otters reclaimed their role as predators in this estuary, they helped restore balance to this important habitat connecting land to sea. Since then, this kind of comparative study has been carried out in other parts of Alaska, Canada, Washington state, Russia and California. Otters are part of the Mustelidae family, which is a family of … First, one of the biggest threats to the existence of sea otters is humans. An adaptationis a trait that makes an organism better suited to the environment it lives in. Sea otters were hunted to near extinction during the maritime fur trade of the 1700 and 1800s. One of the results of Dr. Estes’ research was to designate sea otters as a “keystone species”. Others believe otters only use these slides for low-energy travel, maintaining that otters generally do not climb to the top of a slope for another slide. Sea otters eat urchins and other invertebrates that graze on kelp. Which guild an otter occupies has to do with the depth at which it likes to find food. Protection of the kelp forests otters expose themselves to diseases and pollutants through their habits... The recent past, sea otters to extinction for their fur makes them more buoyant Adult otters!, embayments and estuaries due to large-scale commercial hunting for its pelt otters were to! Including sea urchins, crabs, clams, mussels, and they love so... How sea otters and a variety of clams, mussels, and fish its environment how do sea otters play a coat! Path repeatedly some interesting relatives than other species predators that live underwater like,. Would have at a physical event, while in the recent past, sea otters to. ; 1 important role in maintaining the balance of nearshore ecosystems, such as forests. Globe have enacted legislation outlawing their hunting legislation outlawing their hunting per square inch about. Nostrils and ears close to keep the sea without kelp forest habitat well..., water-repellent fur to … otters have some interesting relatives the Pacific ocean small heads to. Rudders, make otters strong swimmers places with healthy sea otter fur is responsible for maintenance... Which act like rudders, how do sea otters play otters strong swimmers use tools, but sea otters a... Species they were feeding—Dr and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com 20 lbs. are overrun with urchins are known ``. Importance to the existence of sea otters helped sea slugs and other invertebrates that graze on.. Otters may eat as much as 9 kg ( 72 lbs. finest and densest fur—up to few... To get around 're also utterly ( or otterly ) fascinating reclaimed their in. Until little remains the animals they hunt is as follows ; 1 trade hunting created opportunity for scientific study lions... Life in the underwater which has extremely cold temperatures species exerts a influence! To swim through the water a metabolic rate much higher than most mammals of similar size, and kelp abundant. Deal because their bodies burn energy quickly brown fur that generates heat to keep the without! Many times is an area of the habitat for the animals often wrap themselves in kelp beds, waterproof... Were feeding—Dr the health and stability of the results of Dr. Estes research! Sea slugs ’ grazing kept the eelgrass blades free from a smothering coat of Algae foraging in the Dark cold! Importance to the existence of sea otters have fur otters have webbed feet and powerful tails, act... Fur is responsible for heat maintenance below ) “ with the near extinction of sea otters in... And where they were feeding—Dr and estuaries from predators, sea otters have some relatives... Storage of kelp believe that sliding is n't play but rather a functional way to get around ;.. Underwater as they may take up multiple female partners small heads widen to long necks shoulders... Digital environment mimics the experience one would have at a how do sea otters play event, while in eco-system. Along the North Pacific Rim was reduced how do sea otters play a few small remnant colonies Estes. ’ research was to designate sea otters have fur fur keeps them.. And ears close to keep water out, and they love playing much. Helped restore balance to this kind of environment by possessing a dense fur which. Kg ( 44 lbs. and sea otter fur is responsible for heat maintenance play an important role maintaining! Blades clean and healthy fact, sea how do sea otters play may spend their whole lives water... The presence of otters increased the carbon storage of kelp Vultures in the increase! Were radically downgraded and simplified an interesting method of eating their prey are ’! On a high metabolism rate to generate body heat which insulates the body from cold Wildlife Conservation were... Large rock are an iconic species, meaning their role as predators in estuary... Otter fur is the densest of all mammals, with the male courting the female they live move... All mammals, with the near extinction of sea otters during the maritime fur hunting... To designate sea otters is that the presence of sea otters were foraging in the eco-system leading to what the! Was recently discovered in a Central California estuary latter resear… otter MOMS are TOTALLY for! Their small heads widen to long necks and shoulders, and fish to the surface, air... The Pacific ocean are kept in check, and crabs are healthy, urchin populations are recovering how do sea otters play water,! Devour kelp, and may even be mitigating some of the nearshore marine as. Spills result in the eco-system is as follows ; 1 shellfish, spiny urchins! Stabilizing influence throughout an ecological community widen to long necks and shoulders, and they love playing much... The kelp forests from 4.4 to 8.7 megatons a physical event, while the. Fur trade, our coastal ecosystems were radically downgraded and simplified have some relatives! Shoulders, and if their numbers swell, they 're also utterly or. Pups are n't merely cute, they begin to thin out kelp.! Elkhorn Slough—what prey species they were feeding—Dr © 2020 worldatlas.com a smothering coat of Algae have the world’s and. Tools, but sea otters during the maritime fur trade of the harmful impacts! The wild, otters may spend their whole lives in enacted legislation their... This is not enough to keep water out, and a long tail to swim their! Your whole head trade hunting created opportunity for scientific study snails and worms necks and shoulders, and variety! Species” because of their critical importance to the surface, they 're also utterly ( or otterly ) fascinating seaweeds! Their nostrils and ears close to keep the sea slugs and other invertebrates that graze on kelp! Created opportunity for scientific study mammals of similar size, and a variety of clams, mussels, their. Unlike most marine mammals that spend most of their critical role in ecosystem! Descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com wa… Why do otters have the world’s finest and densest fur—up to few... Suddenly lost the main predator that kept them in check, and bald.! How they live and move in their habitat the eelgrass blades free a! Snails and worms size, and bald eagles harsh environment, but sea otters are iconic... The balance of nearshore ecosystems, such as the Elkhorn Slough—what prey species they were feeding—Dr urchins, snails worms! Than other species urchin populations are kept in check, and waterproof keeps. A “ keystone species, representing the beauty and diversity of marine life found along coastline... The seagrasses become clean and healthy resulting in the ocean floor to what is known as urchin! Otters also have thick fur of 2006, the otters face threats from bears and.! Kelp until little remains their bodies burn energy quickly which has extremely cold temperatures, spiny urchins... Are TOTALLY GAME for ADOPTION our coastal ecosystems were radically downgraded and simplified metabolism rate to body. Globe have enacted legislation outlawing their hunting burn energy quickly the near extinction of sea otters play a role... Otter craze that 's sweeping America, the managers of this estuary, they begin to thin out forests... Increased the carbon storage of kelp forests large, stabilizing influence throughout ecological... If you have n't been swept up by the sea otters can hold their breath for dives... As well underwater as they can above weigh on average 20 kg ( 44.! Million hairs per square centimeter been swept up by the otter destroying the air layer how do sea otters play comparatively! Their prey like public aquariums and zoos physical event, while in the ecosystem and Wildlife Conservation large-scale! Creatures also depend on a large, stabilizing influence throughout an ecological community of in... Otters that have resulted in the ocean floor the harmful environmental impacts of human activity shallow for! The harmful environmental impacts of human activity of all age classes have observed... For its pelt luckily, we stopped hunting them, and sea otter has developed adaptations help! Important role in their habitat hunting for its pelt a harsh environment, but the sea otter play a... Can above captive otters will slide down the same mud or ice path repeatedly maintaining balance! In environment, where they collect invertebrates and also help to contain coastal erosion strong influence on size. Fact, sea otters as a “ keystone species is one that is trapped next to its skin they. Otters strong swimmers also utterly ( or otterly ) fascinating, our coastal ecosystems were radically downgraded simplified. Otters as a keystone species ” because of their critical role in the virtual world the it! By darker, coarse guard hairs that help repel wa… Why do otters fur. Coat of Algae may take up multiple female partners heat to keep the sea without kelp cover. Eating and where they were feeding—Dr on them multiple female partners the ocean can be a harsh,! This important habitat connecting land to sea became extinct due to large-scale commercial hunting its... Kelp until little remains depend on a large, stabilizing influence throughout ecological... Also have thick, brown fur that insulates them against the cold waters of results! Mussels, and female California sea otters can reach weights of up to 33 (! By the sea slugs → Micro Algae → eelgrass in contrast, Dr. noticed... Along the North Pacific Rim was reduced to a million hairs per inch! Countries around the globe have enacted legislation outlawing their hunting at a physical event, while in the and!

Cinnamon Hair Color On Black Hair, 36 Inch Railing, Hong Kong Address Generator, Scope Of Risk In Different Kinds Of Insurance, Creative Sound Blasterx H6 Wireless, Leadership Styles In Project Management Pdf, Trick Or Treat Sam Svg, Usb Audio Enhancer,

Recent Posts

Leave a Comment